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Paper: Tests for Substructure in Gravitational Lenses
Volume: 327, Satellites and Tidal Streams
Page: 201
Authors: Dalal, N.; Kochanek, C.S.
Abstract: We use a simple statistical test to show that the anomalous flux ratios observed in gravitational lenses are created by gravitational perturbations from substructure rather than propagation effects in the ISM, incomplete lens models or stellar microlensing. Current estimates for the projected abundance of substructure at small radii determined from lens systems are on the order of fsat ∼ 2%.
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