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Paper: Abundance Patterns in Planetary Nebulae
Volume: 199, Asymmetrical Planetary Nebulae II: From Origins to Microstructures
Page: 329
Authors: Kwitter, Karen B.; Henry, Richard B. C.
Abstract: We previously determined abundances of He, C, N, O, and Ne for a sample of planetary nebulae (PNe) representing a broad range in progenitor mass and metallicity, and we now compare them with theoretical predictions of PNe abundances from a grid of intermediate- mass star models. We find very good agreement between observations and theory, lending strong support to our current understanding of nucleosynthesis in stars below 8M&#x2299 in birth mass. In particular, C and N abundance patterns are consistent with the occurrence of hot-bottom burning in stars above roughly 3.5M&#x2299, a process that converts much of 12C into 14N during the AGB phase. This agreement also supports the validity of published stellar yields of C and N in the study of the abundance evolution of these elements.
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