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Paper: Chondrule-forming Shock Waves in the Solar Nebula by X-Ray Flares
Volume: 341, Chondrites and the Protoplanetary Disk
Page: 883
Authors: Nakamoto, T.; Hayashi, M.R.; Kita, N.T.; Tachibana, S.
Abstract: The shock wave heating model is considered to be one of the most plausible models for chondrule formation. However, the generation mechanism of appropriate shock waves is still under debate. Here, we examined X-ray flares as the shock wave generation mechanism. X-ray flares are energetic momentum ejection phenomena accompanying many T Tauri stars. We used magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations to follow the X-ray flare event, and found that the shock waves are generated in the upper region of the circumstellar disk. Properties of generated shock waves, such as the propagation speed of the shock front and the gas density, vary in a wide range. Some shock waves seem to be suitable for chondrule formation. We also discuss whether the X-ray flare-induced shock waves in the upper region of the disk are consistent with observations of chondrules.
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