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Paper: Rotation and Mass Loss
Volume: 388, Mass Loss from Stars and the Evolution of Stellar Clusters
Page: 57
Authors: Owocki, S.
Abstract: Stellar rotation can play an important role in structuring and enhancing the mass loss from massive stars. Initial 1D models focussed on the expected centrifugal enhancement of the line-driven mass flux from the equator of a rotating star, but the review here emphasizes that the loss of centrifugal support away from the stellar surface actually limits the steady mass flux to just the point-star CAK value, with models near critical rotation characterized by a slow, subcritical acceleration. Recent suggestions that such slow outflows might have high enough density to explain disks in Be or B[e] stars are examined in the context of 2D simulations of the “Wind Compressed Disk” (WCD) paradigm, together with a review of the tendency for poleward components of the line-driving force to inhibit WCD formation. When one accounts for equatorial gravity darkening, the net tendency is in fact for the relatively bright regions at higher latitude to drive a faster, denser “bipolar” outflow. I discuss the potential relevance for the bipolar form of nebulae from LBV stars like η Carinae, but emphasize that, since the large mass loss associated with the eruption of eta Carinae’s Homunculus would heavily saturate line-driving, explaining its bipolar form requires development of analogous models for continuum-driven mass loss. I conclude with a discussion of how radiation seems inherently ill-suited to supporting or driving a geometrically thin, but optically thick disk or disk outflow. The disks inferred in Be and B[e] stars may instead be centrifugally ejected, with radiation inducing an ablation flow from the disk surface, and thus perhaps playing a greater role in destroying (rather than creating) an orbiting, circumstellar disk.
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