||The Need for Synoptic Solar Observations from the Ground
||504, Coimbra Solar Physics Meeting: Ground-based Solar Observations in the Space Instrumentation Era
||Pevtsov, A. A.
||Synoptic observations are indispensable in studies of long-term effects
pertinent to variation in solar radiative output, space weather and space
climate, as well as for understanding the physics of global processes
taking place on our nearest star. Synoptic data also allow putting the
Sun in the context of stellar evolution. Historically, the main-stay of
such observations has been groundbased although the improving longevity
of space-borne instruments puts some space missions into the category of
synoptic facilities. Space- and groundbased (synoptic) observations are
complementary to each other; neither is inferior or superior to the other.
Groundbased facilities can have a long-term (50 years+) operations
horizon, and in comparison with their spacebased counterparts, they
are less expensive to operate and have fewer restrictions on international
collaboration and data access. The instruments can be serviced, upgraded,
and cross-calibrated to ensure the continuity and uniformity of long-term
data series. New measurements could be added in response to changes in
understanding the solar phenomena. Some drawbacks such as day-night
cycle and the variable atmospheric seeing can be mitigated e.g., by
creating global networks and by employing adaptive optics.
Furthermore, the groundbased synoptic observations can serve as a
backbone and a back-up to spacebased observations.
Here I review some existing groundbased synoptic facilities,
describe plans for future networks, and outline the current efforts in
strengthening the international collaboration in synoptic solar observations
from the ground.