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Paper: Osmotically Driven Neutral Sunspot Winds
Volume: 354, Solar MHD Theory and Observations: A High Spatial Resolution Perspective
Page: 230
Authors: Kuhn, J.R.; Morgan, H.
Abstract: The low ionization state in parts of a sunspot may play an important role in its evolution and dynamical state. The cool magnetic interior region of the umbra develops a substantial neutral atomic and molecular hydrogen osmotic pressure which can drive a wind outward from the umbra. Ambipolar diffusion against the magnetically pinned ionized plasma component can also distort the umbral magnetic field into a filamentary penumbral structure. This wind can contribute to the development of the sunspot penumbra and the Evershed flow.
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