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Paper: Dynamic Hydrogen Ionization in Simulations of the Solar Chromosphere
Volume: 354, Solar MHD Theory and Observations: A High Spatial Resolution Perspective
Page: 306
Authors: Leenaarts, J.; Wedemeyer-Boehm, S.
Abstract: Since the assumption of statistical equilibrium does not hold under the conditions of the dynamical solar chromosphere, the time dependence of the rate equations has to be taken into account when calculating ionization stages of elements. We present a method based on the work by Sollum (1999) to calculate the dynamic hydrogen ionization degree and electron density in the 3- D radiation-hydrodynamics code CO5BOLD. In our model chromosphere, both quantities are more constant over time and horizontal position than LTE theory predicts. We compare synthetic brightness temperature images at λ = 1 mm calculated with LTE and time-dependent NLTE electron densities. Both formation height and average brightness temperature change significantly compared to LTE when using time-dependent electron densities.
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