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Paper: Effects of Jet Opening Angle and Velocity Structure on Blazar Parameters
Volume: 386, Extragalactic Jets: Theory and Observation from Radio to Gamma Ray
Page: 522
Authors: Wiita, P.J.; Gopal-Krishna; Dhurde, S.; Sircar, P.
Abstract: We had earlier shown that for a constant velocity jet the discrepancy between the low speeds (β) indicated by VLBI knot motions and the high Doppler factors (δ) inferred from emission of TeV photons could be reconciled if ultrarelativistic jets possessed modest opening angles. Here we evaluate the (flux-weighted) viewing angles of the jet and the apparent β and δ values of the radio knots on parsec scales. The influence of the jet opening angle on these radio knot parameters are found for the usually considered types of relativistic nuclear jets: those with uniform bulk speeds and those where the bulk Lorentz factor of the flow decreases with distance from the jet axis, known as “spine–sheath” flows. For both types of jet velocity structures the expectation value of the jet orientation angle at first falls dramatically with increases in the (central) jet Lorentz factor, but for extremely relativistic jets it levels off at a fraction of the opening angle. The effective values of the apparent speeds and Doppler factors of the knots always decline substantially with increasing jet opening angle. The rarity of highly superluminal parsec-scale radio components in TeV blazars can be understood if their jets are both highly relativistic and intrinsically weaker, so probably less well collimated, than the jets in ordinary blazars.
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