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Paper: Imaging Molecular Gas at High Redshift
Monograph: 7, Science with a Next Generation Very Large Array
Page: 535
Authors: Carilli, C. L.; Shao, Y.
Abstract: We perform simulations of the capabilities of the next generation Very Large Array in the context of imaging low order CO emission from typical high redshift star forming galaxies at ∼ 1 kpc resolution. We adopt as a spatial and dynamical template the CO 1-0 emission from M51, scaled accordingly for redshift, transition, and total gas mass. The molecular gas masses investigated are factors of 1.4, 3.5, and 12.5 larger that of M51, at z = 0.5, 2, and 4.2, respectively. The z = 2 galaxy gas mass is comparable to the lowest mass galaxies currently being discovered in the deepest ALMA and NOEMA cosmological CO line surveys, corresponding to galaxies with star formation rates ∼ 10 to 100 M yr-1. The ngVLA will perform quality imaging at 1kpc resolution of the gas distribution and dynamics over this disk. We recover the overall rotation curve, galaxy orientation properties, and molecular ISM internal velocity dispersion. The model at z = 4.2 corresponds to a massive star forming main sequence disk (SFR ∼130M yr-1). The ngVLA can obtain 1kpc resolution images of such a system in a reasonable integration time, and recover the basic galaxy orientation parameters, and, asymptotically, the maximum rotation velocity. We compare the ngVLA results with capabilities of ALMA and the Jansky VLA. ALMA and the VLA can detect the integrated low order CO emission from these galaxies, but lack the sensitivity to perform the high resolution imaging to recover the dynamics at 1kpc scales. To do so would require of order 1000 hrs per galaxy with these current facilities. We investigate a 'minimal' ngVLA configuration, removing the longest baselines and much of the very compact core, and find good imaging can still be performed at 1 kpc resolution.
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