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Paper: Galaxy Evolution and Environment
Volume: 379, Cosmic Frontiers
Page: 249
Authors: van Dokkum, P.; Quadri, R.
Abstract: The properties of galaxies are strongly correlated with their environment, with red galaxies dominating galaxy clusters and blue galaxies dominating the general field. However, not all field galaxies are young: studies of the colors, line strengths, and M/L ratios of massive early-type galaxies at 0 < z < 1.3 show that the most massive galaxies do not seem to care about their surroundings, and have very similar ages irrespective of their environment. There is good evidence that the growth of these galaxies does continue longer in the field than in clusters, via (nearly) dissipationless mergers of already old galaxies. These results are consistent with predictions of recent galaxy formation models, which incorporate AGN feedback to suppress star formation in the most massive halos. Systematic studies of the relation of galaxies with their environment beyond z = 1 are difficult, and still somewhat contradictory. Intriguingly both the DEEP-2 and VVDS surveys find that the color-density relation disappears at z ~ 1.3, unfortunately just at the point where both surveys become highly incomplete. On the other hand, clustering studies at z ~ 2.5 have shown that red galaxies cluster more strongly than blue galaxies, implying that the color-density relation was already in place at that redshift.
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