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Paper: Power-law Magnetic Field Decay and Constant Core Temperatures of Magnetars, Normal and Millisecond Pulsars
Volume: 451, 9th Pacific Rim Conference on Stellar Astrophysics
Page: 253
Authors: Xie, Y.; Zhang, S
Abstract: The observed correlations, between the characteristic ages and dipole surface magnetic field strengths of all pulsars, can be well explained by magnetic field decay with core temperatures of 2×108 K, ∼2×107 K, and ∼105 K, for magnetars, normal radio pulsars, and millisecond pulsars, respectively; assuming that their characteristic ages are about two orders of magnitude larger than their true ages, the required core temperatures may be reduced by about a factor of 10. The magnetic decay follows a power-law and is dominated by the solenoidal component of the ambipolar diffusion mode. In this model, all NSs are assumed to have the same initial magnetic field strength, but different core temperature which does not change as the magnetic field decays. This suggests that the key distinguishing property between magnetars and normal pulsars is that magnetars were born much hotter than normal pulsars, and thus have much longer magnetic field decay time scales, resulting in higher surface magnetic field strength even with the same ages of normal pulsars. The above conclusion agrees well with the observed correlations between the surface temperatures of magnetars and other young NSs, which do not agree with the cooling dominated evolution of neutron stars. This suggests a possible scenario that heating, perhaps due to magnetic field decay, balances neutron star cooling for observed pulsars.
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