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Paper: Galaxy Redshifts: From Dozens to Millions
Volume: 471, Origins of the Expanding Universe: 1912-1932
Page: 289
Authors: Impey, C.
Abstract: The measurement of galaxy redshifts has changed almost beyond recognition in the past hundred years, progressing from night-long photographic exposures of single targets in the Vesto Slipher era to harvesting tens of thousands of precision CCD redshifts each night. Advances in detector technology and a new generation of 6 to 10 m telescopes have driven this change. The result is a transformation that maps into a transformation in our view of the expanding universe, from the simple detection of linear flow to exquisitely detailed measurement of a filigree of large scale structure imprinted on a decelerating then accelerating expansion. Many innovations have occurred along the way, some technical and some involving the clever use of proxies for, or adjuncts to, collections of stars for distance measurements to go with redshift. The most useful tools have proved to be supermassive black holes, supernovae, and gamma ray bursts.
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