Title: Origins of the Expanding Universe: 1912-1932
Volume: 471 Year: 2013 View this Volume on ADS
Editors: Michael Way and Deidre Hunter
UNIVERSE: 1912–1932

Flagstaff, Arizona, USA
13–15 September 2012

On September 17, 1912, Vesto Melvin Slipher exposed the first plate on which he would later measure the first radial velocity of a "spiral nebula" — the Andromeda Galaxy. Using the 24-inch telescope at Lowell Observatory he followed up with more Doppler shifts, and established that large velocities, usually in recession, are a general property of the spiral nebulae. Those early redshifts measured by Slipher were not only recognized as remarkable by the community, but were later critical to the discovery of what eventually came to be called
"The Expanding Universe." Surprisingly, Slipher's role in the story and that of many other important contributors remains unknown to much of the astronomical community.

To commemorate the 100th anniversary of the first measured Doppler shift in the spectrum of a spiral nebula, a conference was held September 13-15, 2012 in Flagstaff, Arizona, home of the Lowell Observatory. This conference brought together astronomers, historians, and
interested lay people to explore the beginning and trajectory of the concept of the expanding universe.

This book is a modest attempt to place the discoveries that took place in the years between 1912 and 1932 in their proper historical context and to better comprehend the contributions of a number of important scientists including H. Curtis, W. de Sitter, A. Eddington, A. Einstein, A. Friedman, E. Hubble, H. Leavitt, G. Lemaître, K. Lundmark, J. Reynolds, H. Russell, H. Shapley, L. Silberstein, and V. M. Slipher.
ISBN: 978-1-58381-826-8 eISBN: 978-1-58381-827-5

Paper Title Page Authors
Front Matter   
Book Cover
Front Matter 1 Way, M. J.; Hunter, D.
Part I. Redshifts and the Growth of Cosmology   
Slipher, Galaxies, and Cosmological Velocity Fields 3 Peacock, J. A.
Slipher's Redshifts as Support for de Sitter's Model and the Discovery of the Dynamic Universe 25 Nussbaumer, H.
The Varieties of Universal Expansion: Eddington and the Complexities of Early Cosmology 39 Stanley, M.
Part II. Discovery and Fame   
The Contribution of V. M. Slipher to the Discovery of the Expanding Universe 49 O'Raifeartaigh, C.
Slipher and the Nature of the Nebulae 63 Freeman, K.
“The Waters I am Entering No One yet Has Crossed”: Alexander Friedman and the Origins of Modern Cosmology* 71 Belenkiy, A.
Dismantling Hubble's Legacy? 97 Way, M. J.
Part III. Instrumentation and Observational Techniques   
V. M. Slipher and the Development of the Nebular Spectrograph 135 Thompson, L. A.
The Road to Radial Velocities: V. M. Slipher and Mastery of the Spectrograph 143 Smith, R. W.
Through the Lens of History: The Unusual Circumstances Leading to the Acquisition of the Lowell Spectrograph 165 Schindler, K. S.
Another Unsung Lowell Observatory Achievement: The First Infrared Observation of a Comet 181 Marcus, J. N.
Part IV. Historical Context   
Worlds and Systems in Early Modern Europe 193 Ayala, L.
The Critical Importance of Russell's Diagram 205 Gingerich, O.
Henry Norris Russell and the Expanding Universe 217 DeVorkin, D.
What Else Did V. M. Slipher Do? 235 Tenn, J. S.
Lemaître: A Personal Profile 249 Farrell, J.
Part V. Personal Reflections   
An Apology 259 Putnam, W. L.
Remembrances 265 Slipher, A. M.
Edwin Hubble's Silence 269 Lago, D.
A Forgotten Small Telescope that Inspired the Discovery of Galaxies 279 Briggs, J. W.
Part VI. Modern Redshifts and Cosmology   
Galaxy Redshifts: From Dozens to Millions 289 Impey, C.
Humans and Cosmology: Epicycles, Tenacious Beliefs and Test Particles in Motion 301 Bothun, G.
The Nature of the Redshift 321 Tifft, W. G.
Back Matter   
Back Matter 339 Way, M. J.; Hunter, D.