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Paper: Humans and Cosmology: Epicycles, Tenacious Beliefs and Test Particles in Motion
Volume: 471, Origins of the Expanding Universe: 1912-1932
Page: 301
Authors: Bothun, G.
Abstract: In this contribution we describe in both historical and modern terms that all Cosmologies possess foundations of a mysterious physical nature. Here we broadly define these mysteries using an expanded definition of the term epicycle as the equivalent of the literary device Deus ex Machina. In addition, we also describe how the observed motion of test particles motivates the evolution of various cosmological models. These concepts are directly linked as the very first test particle motion was that of Mars and this led to the original epicycle that was required to save the model (e.g. Ptolemy's unmoving Earth). Under this construct we argue that our current foundation of dark matter and dark energy qualify as epicycles.
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