Title: Pathways Towards Habitable Planets
Volume: 430 Year: 2010 View this Volume on ADS
Editors: Coude du Foresto, Vincent; Gelino, Dawn M.; Ribas, Ignasi
These are the proceedings of an international conference organized by the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), the Institute for Space Studies of Catalonia (IEEC), the NASA Exoplanet Science Institute (NExScI), and the Blue Dots Initiative.

One of the most important scientific challenges for the 21st century is the search for habitable worlds around other stars and the characterization of their atmospheres, with the goal of detecting signs of biological activity. This is a long-term, interdisciplinary endeavor, engaging astrophysicists, biologists, planetary scientists, and instrument scientists. Eventually, space missions will be used to search for habitable planets, but today we need to start taking intermediate steps in that direction. The aim of this conference was to help integrate the prospective efforts in Europe and in the U.S., build a community around the theme of finding and characterizing habitable planets, and bring together several potential pathways towards that final goal.

The conference included introductory lectures, invited talks, contributed talks, and posters presented by attendees from around the world. Sessions included reviews of working groups on multiple aperture imaging, single aperture imaging, transits, habitability, and characterizing exoplanets. Summaries of astrophysical methods and projects are included in this volume, as well as a summary of the panel discussions on some of the key issues. This volume also includes several papers providing a broad picture on the search for life elsewhere in the universe.
ISBN: 978-1-58381-740-7 eISBN: 978-1-58381-741-4
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Paper Title Page Authors
Front matter   
Volume Cover Coude du Foresto, Vincent; Gelino, Dawn M.; Ribas, Ignasi
Front Matter 1 Coude du Foresto, Vincent; Gelino, Dawn M.; Ribas, Ignasi
Conference Photos 2 Coude du Foresto, Vincent; Gelino, Dawn M.; Ribas, Ignasi
Part I. Welcome   
How to Find a Habitable Planet 3 Kasting, J. F.
Part II. Reports from Prospective Exercises   
The Blue Dots Initiative and Roadmapping Exercise 15 Coudé, V.
Exoplanets Forum 2008 21 Traub, W. A.; Lawson, P. R.; Unwin, S. C.; Muterspaugh, M. W.; Soummer, R.; Danchi, W. C.; Hinz, P.; Gaudi, B. S.; Torres, G.; Deming, D.; Lazio, J.; Dressler, A.
Part III. Working Group Reviews   
Multi-Aperture Imaging of Extrasolar Planetary Systems 29 Absil, O.
Scientific Output of Single Aperture Imaging of Exoplanets 37 Gratton, R.; Bonavita, M.; Desidera, S.; Boccaletti, A.; Kasper, M.; Kerber, F.; Boccaletti, A.; Kasper, M.; Kerber, F.
Blue Dots Team Transits Working Group Review 45 Sozzetti, A.; Afonso, C.; Alonso, R.; Blank, D. L.; Catala, C.; Deeg, H.; Grenfell, J. L.; Hellier, C.; Latham, D. W.; Minniti, D.; Pont, F.; Rauer, H.
Habitability of Planets 55 Forget, F.; Wordsworth, R. D.
Characterizing Exoplanet Atmospheres and Surfaces 65 Encrenaz, T.
Habitable Planets: Targets and their Environments 76 Güdel, M.
Review from the Blue Dots Astrometry Working Group 84 Malbet, F.; Sozzetti, A.; Lazorenko, P.; Launhardt, R.; Ségransan, D.; Delplancke, F.; Elias, N.; Muterspaugh, M. W.; Quirrenbach, A.; Reffert, S.; van Belle, G.
The (Un)Lonely Planet Guide: Formation and Evolution of Planetary Systems from a “Blue Dots” Perspective 93 Meyer, M. R.
Part IV. Astrophysical Themes   
General Milankovitch Cycles 109 Spiegel, D. S.; Raymond, S.; Dressing, C. D.; Scharf, C. A.; Mitchell, J. L.; Menou, K.
Exploring Extrasolar Worlds Today and Tomorrow 115 Tinetti, G.; Griffith, C. A.
Uniformly Derived Orbital Parameters of Exo-planets using EXOFIT 122 Balan, S. T.; Lever, G.; Lahav, O.
Pathways towards Neptune-mass Planets around Very Low-mass Stars 127 Dreizler, S.; Bean, J.; Seifahrt, A.; Hartman, H.; Nilsson, H.; Wiedemann, G.; Reiners, A.; Henry, T. J.
Tidal Constraints on Planetary Habitability 133 Barnes, R.; Jackson, B.; Greenberg, R.; Raymond, S. N.; Heller, R.
Pathways towards Habitable Moons 139 Kipping, D. M.; Fossey, S. J.; Campanella, G.; Schneider, J.; Tinetti, G.
Pressure-temperature Phase Diagram of the Earth 145 Jones, E. G.; Lineweaver, C. H.
Abiotic Buildup of Ozone 152 Domagal-Goldman, S. D.; Meadows, V. S.
CoRoT-7b: The First Transiting Super-Earth Fully Characterized in Radius and Mass 158 Rouan, D.; Léger, A.; Schneider, J.; Barge, P.; Fridlund, M.; Samuel, B.; Queloz, D.; Moutou, C.; Bouchy, F.; Hatzes, A.; and all the CoRoT Exoplanet Science Team
Part V. Methods and Projects   
Pathways towards Habitable Planets: JWST’s Capabilities for Exoplanet Science 167 Clampin, M.
Radioastronomy and the Study of Exoplanets 175 Zarka, P.
NAHUAL: A Next-Generation Near Infrared Spectrograph for the GTC 181 Martín, E. L.; Guenther, E.; del Burgo, C.; Rodler, F.; Álvarez, C.; Baffa, C.; Béjar, V. J. S.; Caballero, J. A.; Deshpande, R.; Esparza, P.; López Morales, M. L.; Moitinho, A.; Montes, D.; Montgomery, M. M.; Pallé, E.; Tata, R.; Valdivielso, L.; Zapatero Osorio, M. R.
Infrared Detection and Characterization of Debris Disks, Exozodiacal Dust, and Exoplanets: The FKSI Mission Concept 188 Danchi, W. C.; Barry, R. K.; Lopez, B.; Rinehart, S. A.; Absil, O.; Augereau, J.; Beust, H.; Bonfils, X.; Bordé, P.; Defrère, D.; Kern, P.; Lawson, P. R.; Léger, A.; Monin, J.; Mourard, D.; Ollivier, M.; Petrov, R.; Traub, W. A.; Unwin, S. C.; Vakili, F.
Japanese Space Activity on Exoplanets and SPICA 195 Nakagawa, T.
SOFIA: On the Pathway toward Habitable Worlds 201 Gehrz, R. D.; Angerhausen, D.; Becklin, E. E.; Greenhouse, M. A.; Horner, S.; Krabbe, A.; Swain, M. R.; Young, E. T.
Probing the Extrasolar Planet Diversity with SEE-COAST 207 Baudoz, P.; Boccaletti, A.; Schneider, J.; Galicher, R.; Tinetti, G.
The SIM Lite Mission 213 Shao, M.
Darwin in the Context of Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 219 Liseau, R.
MOA-II Microlensing Exoplanet Survey 225 Sumi, T.
Direct Detection of Giant Extrasolar Planets with SPHERE on the VLT 231 Beuzit, J.-L.; Boccaletti, A.; Feldt, M.; Dohlen, K.; Mouillet, D.; Puget, P.; Wildi, F.; Abe, L.; Antichi, J.; Baruffolo, A.; Baudoz, P.; Carbillet, M.; Charton, J.; Claudi, R.; Desidera, S.; Downing, M.; Fabron, C.; Feautrier, P.; Fedrigo, E.; Fusco, T.; Gach, J.-L.; Giro, E.; Gratton, R.; Henning, T.; Hubin, N.; Joos, F.; Kasper, M.; Lagrange, A.-M.; Langlois, M.; Lenzen, R.; Moutou, C.; Pavlov, A.; Petit, C.; Pragt, J.; Rabou, P.; Rigal, F.; Rochat, S.; Roelfsema, R.; Rousset, G.; Saisse, M.; Schmid, H.-M.; Stadler, E.; Thalmann, C.; Turatto, M.; Udry, S.; Vakili, F.; Vigan, A.; Waters, R.
Resolved Imaging of Extra-Solar Photosynthesis Patches with a “Laser Driven Hypertelescope Flotilla" 239 Labeyrie, A.; Coroller, H. L.; Residori, S.; Bortolozzo, U.; Huignard, J.; Riaud, P.
Astrometric-Radial-Velocity and Coronagraph-Imaging Double-Blind Studies 249 Traub, W. A.
Gaia and the Astrometry of Giant Planets 253 Lattanzi, M. G.; Sozzetti, A.
PLATO : PLAnetary Transits and Oscillations of Stars - The Exoplanetary System Explorer 260 Catala, C.; Arentoft, T.; Fridlund, M.; Lindberg, R.; Mas-Hesse, J. M.; Micela, G.; Pollacco, D.; Poretti, E.; Rauer, H.; Roxburgh, I.; Stankov, A.; Udry, S.
EUCLID: Dark Universe Probe and Microlensing Planet Hunter 266 Beaulieu, J. P.; Bennett, D. P.; Batista, V.; Cassan, A.; Kubas, D.; Fouqué, P.; Kerrins, E.; Mao, S.; Miralda-Escudé, J.; Wambsganss, J.; Gaudi, B. S.; Gould, A.; Dong, S.
The Habitable Zone Planet Finder Project: A Proposed High Resolution NIR Spectrograph for the Hobby Eberly Telescope (HET) to Discover Low Mass Exoplanets around M Stars 272 Mahadevan, S.; Ramsey, L.; Redman, S.; Zonak, S.; Wright, J.; Wolszczan, A.; Endl, M.; Zhao, B.
The Fresnel Interferometric Imager 278 Koechlin, L.; Rivet, J.-P.; Gili, R.; Deba, P.; Raksasataya, T.; Serre, D.
SPICA Coronagraph 284 Enya, K.; Kotani, T.; Nakagawa, T.; Kataza, H.; Komatsu, K.; Uchida, H.; Haze, K.; Higuchi, S.; Miyata, T.; Sako, S.; Nakamura, T.; Yamashita, T.; Narita, N.; Tamura, M.; Nishikawa, J.; Hayano, H.; Oya, S.; Kokubo, E.; Itoh, Y.; Fukagawa, M.; Shibai, H.; Honda, M.; Baba, N.; Murakami, N.; Takami, M.; Matsuo, T.; Ida, S.; Abe, L.; Guyon, O.; Venet, M.; Yamamuro, T.; Bierden, P.
Part VI. Synthesis of Panel Discussions   
Do we Need to Solve the Exozodi Question? If Yes, How to Best Solve It? 293 Absil, O.; Eiroa, C.; Augereau, J.; Beichman, C. A.; Danchi, W. C.; Defrére, D.; Fridlund, M.; Roberge, A.
How to Consolidate Efforts within the Community and the Related Agencies? 300 Zinnecker, H.
Designating Habitable Planets for Follow-up Study - What are the Relative Parameter Spaces of Radial Velocities and Astrometry? 302 Ribas, I.; Malbet, F.
Part VII. A Broader Picture   
Exoplanets and Earth Sciences 311 Pallé, E.
Life in the Solar System 317 Giménez, A.
The Extraterrestrial Life Debate in Different Cultures 324 Schneider, J.
Looking for Life Elsewhere: A Biologist's Perspective 331 Maurel, M.-C.
The ITER Pathway: Useful Lessons for Exoplanet Projects? 336 Jacquinot, J.
Part VIII. Conclusion   
A Personal Insight on the Conference 345 Léna, P. J.
Part IX. Special Session: Advanced Strategic Mission Concept Studies   
The New Worlds Observer: The Astrophysics Strategic Mission Concept Study 353 Cash, W. and the New Worlds Study Team
Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST): Characterizing Habitable Worlds 361 Postman, M.; Traub, W. A.; Krist, J.; Stapelfeldt, K.; Brown, R.; Oegerle, W.; Lo, A.; Clampin, M.; Soummer, R.; Wiseman, J.; Mountain, M.
Dilute Aperture Visible Nulling Coronagraphic Imager (DaViNCI) 368 Shao, M.; Levine, B. M.
ACCESS: A Concept Study for the Direct Imaging and Spectroscopy of Exoplanetary Systems 375 Trauger, J.; Stapelfeldt, K.; Traub, W. A.; Krist, J.; Moody, D.; Serabyn, E.; Mawet, D.; Pueyo, L.; Shaklan, S.; Henry, C.; Park, P.; Gappinger, R.; Brugarolas, P.; Alexander, J.; Mireles, V.; Dawson, O.; Guyon, O.; Kasdin, J.; Vanderbei, B.; Spergel, D.; Belikov, R.; Marcy, G.; Brown, R.; Schneider, J.; Woodgate, B.; Matthews, G.; Egerman, R.; Voyer, P.; Vallone, P.; Elias, J.; Conturie, Y.; Polidan, R.; Lillie, C.; Spittler, C.; Lee, D.; Hejal, R.; Bronowick, A.; Saldivar, N.; Ealey, M.; Price, T.
The ExtraSolar Planetary Imaging Coronagraph 383 Clampin, M.; Lyon, R.
The Pupil Mapping Exoplanet Coronagraphic Observer (PECO) 390 Guyon, O.; Greene, T.; Cahoy, K.; Shaklan, S.; Tenerelli, D.; and the PECO Team
Part X. Poster Presentations   
Interactions between a Massive Planet and a Disc 399 Amaro-Seoane, P.; Ribas, I.; Löckmann, U.; Baumgardt, H.
Ground-based Astrometric Planet Searches using Medium-sized Telescopes 401 Anglada-Escudé, G.; Boss, A. P.; Weinberger, A. J.
The Fourier-Kelvin Stellar Interferometer: Exploring Exoplanetary Systems with an Infrared Probe-class Mission 403 Barry, R. K.; Danchi, W. C.; Lopez, B.; Rinehart, S. A.; Absil, O.; Augereau, J.-C.; Beust, H.; Bonfils, X.; Bordé, P.; Defrère, D.; Kern, P.; Léger, A.; Monin, J.; Mourard, D.; Ollivier, M.; Petrov, R.; Vakili, F.; FKSO Consortium
Towards Astrometric Detection of Neptune- to Earth-Mass Planets around M-Stars 405 Bergfors, C.; Brandner, W.; Janson, M.; Kudryavtseva, N.; Daemgen, S.; Hippler, S.; Hormuth, F.; Henning, T.
How Common are Extrasolar, Late Heavy Bombardments? 407 Booth, M.; Wyatt, M. C.; Morbidelli, A.; Moro-Martín, A.; Levison, H. F.
Occurrence, Physical Conditions, and Observations of Super-Ios and Hyper-Ios 409 Briot, D.; Schneider, J.
First Steps on the Design of the Optical Differentiation Coronagraph 411 Cagigal, M. P.; Canales, V. F.; Valle, P. J.; Sanchez-Blanco, E.; Maldonado, M.; Garcia-Vargas, M. L.; Sanchez-Blanco, E.; Maldonado, M.; Garcia-Vargas, M. L.
The Search for Exoplanets in India 413 Chakraborty, A.; Anadarao, B. G.; Mahadevan, S.
Characterization of Extrasolar Planets with High Contrast Imaging 416 Claudi, R.; Bonavita, M.; Gratton, R.; Desidera, S.; Tinetti, G.; Beuzit, J.-L.; Kasper, M.
ALADDIN: An Antarctic-based Nulling Interferometer for Exozodi Characterization 418 Coudé du Foresto, V.
A Photometric Transit Search for Planets around Cool Stars from the Italian Alps: Results from a Feasibility Study 420 Damasso, M.; Calcidese, P.; Bernagozzi, A.; Bertolini, E.; Giacobbe, P.; Lattanzi, M. G.; Smart, R.; Sozzetti, A.; Giacobbe, P.; Lattanzi, M. G.; Smart, R.; Sozzetti, A.
Influence of Exozodiacal Dust Clouds on Mid-IR Earth-like Planet Detection 422 Defrère, D.; Absil, O.; den Hartog, R.; Hanot, C.; Stark, C.
Future Technical Developments Concerning Nulling Interferometry at the Institut d’Astrophysique Spatiale (Orsay) 424 Demangeon, O.
Ground-based Search of Earth-mass Exoplanets using Transit-Timing Variations 426 Fernandez, J. M.
The Fabra-ROA Baker-Nunn Camera at Observatori Astronòmic del Montsec: A Wide-field Imaging Facility for Exoplanet Transit Detection 428 Fors, O.; Núñez, J.; Muiños, J. L.; Montojo, F. J.; Baena, R.; Merino, M.; Morcillo, R.; Blanco, V.
Dynamical Stability in the Habitable Zones of Nearby Extrasolar Planetary Systems 430 Funk, B.; Süli, Á.; Pilat-Lohinger, E.; Schwarz, R.; Eggl, S.
The NULLTIMATE Testbed: A Progress Report 432 Gabor, P.
Low-mass Objects in Moving Groups 434 Gálvez-Ortiz, M. C.; Clarke, J. R. A.; Pinfield, D. J.; Folkes, S. L.; Jenkins, J. S.; García Pérez, A. E.; Burningham, B.; Day-Jones, A. C.; Jones, H. R. A.
Characterization of High-Energy Emissions of GKM Stars and the Effects on Planet Habitability 437 Garcés, A.; Ribas, I.; Catalán, S.
Looking for Transits of Jupiter-Size Planets Orbiting Stars in Habitable Zones 439 García-Melendo, E.; Ribas, I.
Modeling the Atmospheres of Earth-like Planets 441 García Muñoz, A.; Pallé, E.; Martín, E. L.
On the Detectability of Biomarkers in Extrasolar Super-Earth Atmospheres 443 Gebauer, S.; Godolt, M.; Grenfell, J. L.; Hedelt, P.; von Paris, P.; Rauer, H.; Selsis, F.; Belu, A.
Influence of the Spectral Stellar Flux Distribution on Atmospheric Dynamics of Extrasolar Earth-like Planets 445 Godolt, M.; Grenfell, J. L.; Hamann-Reinus, A.; Kunze, M.; Langematz, U.; Rauer, H.
Exoplanetary Systems with SAFARI: A Far Infrared Imaging Spectrometer for SPICA 448 Goicoechea, J.R.; Swinyard, B.
SIM Lite Instrument Description, Operation, and Performance 450 Goullioud, R.
Testing PIAA Coronagraphs at NASA Ames 453 Greene, T.; Belikov, R.; Connelley, M.; Guyon, O.; Lynch, D.; McKelvey, M.; Pluzhnik, E.; Witteborn, F.
Transfer of Meteorites from Earth to the Interesting Objects within the Solar System and the Extrasolar Planets 455 Hara, T.; Takagi, T.; Kajiura, D.
A Coronagraph Experiment in a High Thermal Stability Environment with a Binary Shaped Pupil Mask 457 Haze, K.; Enya, K.; Kotani, T.; Abe, L.; Nakagawa, T.; Higuchi, S.; Sato, T.; Wakayama, T.; Yamamuro, T.
Performance of the Cophasing System of Persee, a Dynamic Nulling Demonstrator 460 Houairi, K.; Cassaing, F.; Duigou, J. M. L.; Amans, J. P.; Barillo, M.; Coudé du Foresto, V.; Hénault, F.; Jacquinod, S.; Lozi, J.; Montri, J.; Ollivier, M.; Reess, J. M.; Sorrente, B.
Search for Exoplanets using TTVs in the Southern Hemisphere 462 Hoyer, S.; Rojo, P.; López-Morales, M.
First Results from the Transit Ephemeris Refinement and Monitoring Survey (TERMS) 464 Kane, S. R.; Mahadevan, S.; von Braun, K.; Laughlin, G.; Howard, A.; Ciardi, D. R.
Flux and Polarization Signals of Water Clouds on Earth–Like Exoplanets 466 Karalidi, T.; Stam, D. M.; Hovenier, J. W.
Using Polarization to Detect and Characterize Exoplanets 469 Kedziora-Chudczer, L.; Bailey, J.
Signatures of Resonant Terrestrial Planets in Long-Period Systems 472 Kennedy, G. F.; Mardling, R. A.
Influence of Clouds on the Emission Spectra of Earth-like Extrasolar Planets 475 Kitzmann, D.; Patzer, A. B. C.; von Paris, P; Godolt, M.; Grenfell, J. L.; Rauer, H.
A Wavefront Correction System for the SPICA Coronagraph Instrument 477 Kotani, T.; Enya, K.; Nakagawa, T.; Abe, L.; Miyata, T.; Sako, S.; Nakamura, T.; Haze, K.; Higuchi, S.; Tange, Y.
A Laboratory Demonstration of High Dynamic Range Imaging using the Single-mode Fiber Pupil Remapping System (FIRST) 480 Kotani, T.; Choquet, E.; Lacour, S.; Perrin, G.; Fedou, P.; Marchis, F.; Duchêne, G.
Stellar Activity Characteristics at FUV and Radio Wavelengths 483 Leitzinger, M.; Odert, P.; Hanslmeier, A.; Ribas, I.; Konovalenko, A. A.; Vanko, M.; Khodachenko, M. L.; Lammer, H.; Rucker, H. O.
Visible Nulling Coronagraph Progress Report 485 Lyon, R. G.; Clampin, M.; Woodruff, R. A.; Vasudevan, G.; Thompson, P.; Petrone, P.; Madison, T.; Rizzo, M.; Melnick, G.; Tolls, V.
Checking Stability of Planet Orbits in Multiple-planet Systems 488 Malbet, F.; Catanzarite, J.; Shao, M.; Zhai, C.
Spectroscopic Observations of Nearby Cool Stars: The DUNES Sample 491 Maldonado, J.; Eiroa, C.; Martínez-Arnáiz, R. M.; Montes, D.
A Mid-infrared Space Observatory for Characterizing Exoplanets 493 Martin, S. R.; Scharf, D. P.; Wirz, R.; Purcell, G.; Rodriguez, J.
The Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme AO Project 497 Martinache, F.; Guyon, O.
Spectral Imaging with Nulling Interferometer 499 Matsuo, T.; Traub, W. A.; Tamura, M.; Makoto, H.
Multiple Aperture Imaging and its Application to Exo-Earth Imager 501 Matsuo, T.; Traub, W. A.; Tamura, M.; Makoto, H.
The Systemic Console Package 503 Meschiari, S.; Wolf, A. S.; Rivera, E.; Laughlin, G.; Vogt, S.; Butler, P.
The Earthshine Project: Applications to the Search of Exoearths 505 Montañés-Rodríguez, P.; Pallé Bagó, E.
Estimating the Age of Exoplanet’s Host Stars by their Membership in Moving Groups and Young Associations 507 Montes, D.; Caballero, J. A.; Fernández-Rodríguez, C. J.; Alloza, L. J.; Bertrán de Lis, S.; Garrido-Rubio, A.; Greciano, R.; Herranz-Luque, J. E.; Juárez-Martínez, I.; Manjavacas, E.; Ocaña, F.; Pila-Díez, B.; Sánchez de Miguel, A.; Tapia-Ayuga, C. E.
Eight-octant Phase-mask Coronagraph for Detecting Earth-like Exoplanets around Partially Resolved Stars 510 Murakami, N.; Nishikawa, J.; Yokochi, K.; Tamura, M.; Baba, N.; Hashimoto, N.; Abe, L.
A Coronagraph with an Unbalanced Nulling Interferometer and Adaptive Optics 513 Nishikawa, J.; Yokochi, K.; Murakami, N.; Abe, L.; Kotani, T.; Tamura, M.; Kurokawa, T.; Tavrov, A. V.; Takeda, M.
M-Type Stars as Hosts for Habitable Planets 515 Odert, P.; Leitzinger, M.; Hanslmeier, A.; Lammer, H.; Khodachenko, M. L.; Ribas, I.
Wide Angle Telescope Transit Search (WATTS): A Low-Elevation Component of the TrES Network 517 Oetiker, B.; Kowalczyk, M.; Nietfeld, B.; Mandushev, G.; Dunham, E. W.
Where Can We Find Super-Earths? 519 Podlewska-Gaca, E.; Szuszkiewicz, E.
CARMENES: Calar Alto High-Resolution Search for M Dwarfs with Exo-earths with a Near-infrared Echelle Spectrograph 521 Quirrenbach, A.; Amado, P. J.; Mandel, H.; Caballero, J. A.; Ribas, I.; Reiners, A.; Mundt, The CARMENES Consortium
The Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry 524 Rinehart, S. A.; The BETTII Team
Detecting Planets around Very Cool Stars at Near Infrared Wavelengths with the Radial Velocity Technique 526 Rodler, F.; del Burgo, C.; Martín, E. L.; Álvarez, C.
Metallicity of M-dwarfs from NIR Spectra 528 Rojas-Ayala, B.; Lloyd, J. P.
X-Exoplanets: An X-ray and EUV Database for Exoplanets 530 Sanz-Forcada, J.; García-Álvarez, D.; Velasco, A.; Solano, E.; Ribas, I.; Micela, G.; Pollock, A.
Pathway toward an Infrared Interferometer 532 Schneider, J.
Characterization of Exoplanet Atmospheres in the Solar Neighbourhood with E-ELT/METIS 534 Schnupp, C.; Brandner, W.; Bergfors, C.; Geißler, K. G.; Daemgen, S.; Hippler, S.; Hormuth, F.; Lenzen, R.; Henning, T.; Janson, M.; Pantin, E.
US and European Technology Roadmap for a Mid-infrared Space Interferometer 536 Schuller, P. A.; Lawson, P. R.; Lay, O. P.; Léger, A.; Martin, S. R.
Habitable Planets in Compact Close-in Planetary Systems 539 Schwarz, R.; Pilat-Lohinger, E.; Funk, B.; Wuchterl, G.
Far-Infrared Interferometric Experiment (FITE): Toward the First Flight 541 Shibai, H.; Fukagawa, M.; Kato, E.; Kanoh, T.; Kohyama, T.; Itoh, Y.; Yamamoto, K.; Kawada, M.; Watabe, T.; Nakashima, A.; Tanabe, M.; Kanoh, R.; Narita, M.
Remote Detection of Biological Activity using Circular Polarization of Light 543 Sparks, W. B.
The Inner Boundary of the Habitable Zone for Earth-like Planets 545 Stracke, B.; Grenfell, J. L.; von Paris, P.; Patzer, A. B. C.; Rauer, H.
The Role of the Solar XUV Flux and Impacts in the Earliest Atmosphere of the Earth 547 Trigo-Rodríguez, J. M.; Ribas, I.; Llorca, J.
Venus Near-Infrared Spectra: SCIAMACHY-Observations and Modeling 549 Vasquez, M.; Schreier, F.; Gottwald, M.; Slijkhuis, S.; Gimeno-García, S.; Krieg, E.; Lichtenberg, G.
Constraints on Secondary Eclipse Probabilities of Long-Period Exoplanets from Orbital Elements 551 von Braun, K.; Kane, S. R.
Extrasolar Planets in the Gliese 581 System - Model Atmospheres and Implications for Habitability 554 von Paris, P.; Stracke, B.; Patzer, A. B. C.; Rauer, H.; Grenfell, J. L.; Hedelt, P.; Godolt, M.; Gebauer, S.; Kitzmann, D.
Detection of Transiting Super-Earths around Active Stars 556 Weingrill, J.; Lammer, H.; Khodachenko, M. L.; Hanslmeier, A.
Habitability on the Outer Edge: Three-dimensional Climate Modeling of Early Mars and Gliese 581d 558 Wordsworth, R. D.; Forget, F.; Millour, E.; Madeleine, J.-B; Eymet, V.; Selsis, F.
The SEDs of Circumsubstellar Protoplanetary Disks 560 Zakhozhay, O. V.; Zakhozhay, V. A.
Back matter   
Author Index 565 Coude du Foresto, Vincent; Gelino, Dawn M.; Ribas, Ignasi
Back Matter 571